Allergies: Symptoms and care
Allergic facts
Overview of allergies
Is it allergic?
Is it allergic? (Advanced)
What causes allergies?
What causes allergies? (Advanced)
Who is at risk for allergies and why?
What kind of general allergy conditions, and what are the symptoms and signs of allergies?
Allergic rhinitis (fever fever)
Asthma
Allergic eyes (conjunctivitis)
Eczema (atopic dermatitis)
Itching (urticaria)
Anaphylaxis.
Where is allergens?
In the air we breathe
In what we consume
Touch our skin
Injected into our body
What specialists treat people with allergies?
How do health care professionals diagnose allergies? What kind of allergic testing?
What are the choice of care and medicines for allergies?
Is there a home medicine for allergies?
What is an allergic prognosis?
Is it possible to prevent allergies?

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Scan images of lung trachea electron microscopes with examples of pollen, dust mites, and mold.source: Charles Daglian, Getty Images / ScienceFoto, Istock

Allergic facts
Allergies involve excessive responses from the immune system, often against common substances such as food, furry animal fur, or pollen.
The immune system is a complex system that usually defends the body against foreign invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, while also survey abnormal changes in their own cells.
Allergens are substances that are foreign to the body and which cause allergic reactions.
IgE is an allergic antibody. Antibodies, IgG, IgM, and other ribs, survive against infection.
Although many individuals extend allergies from time to time, allergies can also develop at any age, including during adulthood.
The environment plays a role in developing allergies, like genetics. There is a greater risk of being exposed to allergic conditions if someone has a family allergy history, especially in parents or siblings.

Overview of allergies

This is a review of how allergic responses from the immune system occur and why certain people become allergies. Allergic diseases are most commonly explained, including allergic rhinitis (nasal allergies), allergic conjunctivitis (eye allergy), allergic asthma, urticaria (itching), and food allergies.

Is it allergic?
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Allergies are excessive reactions by the immune system in response to exposure to certain foreign substances. The response is excessive because these foreign substances usually look harmless by the immune system in individuals and no response to it. In individual allergies, the body recognizes substance as a foreign, and allergic part of the immune system results in a response.

Allergy-producing substances are called “allergens.” An example of allergens including pollen, dust mites, molds, animal protein, food, and medicine. When an individual allergies come into contact with allergens, the immune system installs a response through IgE antibodies. People who are vulnerable to allergies are said to be allergic or “atopics.”

Symptoms and signs of nut allergies

Types of Peanut Allergy Symptoms: around 80% -90% of the reaction involves such skin manifestations

rash, including itching,
reddish,
itchy.

However, the reaction can occur in the absence of rashes, and these reactions may be the most severe.

Read more about symptoms and signs of nut allergies »

 

Allergy prevalence facts: MedicineNET

Is it allergic? (Advanced)
Allergy prevalence:
About 10% -30% of individuals in the industrial world are influenced by allergic conditions, and this number increases.
Allergic rhinitis (nose allergy) affects around 20% of Americans. Between recipe costs, doctor visits, and passed / school days, economic burden of allergic disease exceeds $ 3 billion per year.
Asthma affects around 8% -10% of Americans. Estimated health costs for asthma exceed around $ 20 billion per year.
Food allergies

  • Food allergies affect roughly 3%-6% of children in the United States, and about 1%-2% of adults in the U.S.
  • The prevalence of allergic conditions has increased significantly over the last two decades and continues to rise.

What causes allergies?

A common scenario can help explain how allergies develop. A few months after the new cat arrives in the house, dad begins to have itchy eyes and episodes of sneezing. One of the three children develops coughing and wheezing. The mom and the other two children experience no reaction despite the presence of the cat. How can this occur?

The immune system is the body’s organized defense mechanism against foreign invaders, particularly infections. Its job is to recognize and react to these foreign substances, which are called antigens. Antigens often lead to an immune response through the production of antibodies, which are protective proteins that are specifically targeted against particular antigens. These antibodies, or immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA), are protective and help destroy a foreign particle by attaching to its surface, thereby making it easier for other immune cells to destroy it. The allergic person, however, develops a specific type of antibody called immunoglobulin E, or IgE, in response to certain normally harmless foreign substances, such as cat dander, pollen, or foods. Other antigens, such as bacteria, do not lead to the production of IgE, and therefore do not cause allergic reactions. Once IgE is formed, it can recognize the antigen and can then trigger an allergic response. IgE was discovered and named in 1967 by Kimishige and Teriko Ishizaka.

A diagram shows what causes allergies.

A diagram shows what causes allergies.Source: MedicineNet, iStock

What causes allergies? (Continued)

In the pet cat example, the dad and the youngest daughter developed IgE antibodies in large amounts that were targeted against the cat allergen. The dad and daughter are now sensitized, or prone to develop allergic reactions, on repeated exposures to cat allergen. Typically, there is a period of sensitization ranging from days to years prior to an allergic response. Although it might occasionally appear that an allergic reaction has occurred on the first exposure to the allergen, there needs to be prior exposure in order for the immune system to react. It is important to realize that it is impossible to be allergic to something that an individual has truly never been exposed to before, though the first exposure may be subtle or unknown. The first exposure can even occur in a baby in the womb, through breast milk, or through the skin.

IgE is an antibody that all of us have in small amounts. Allergic individuals, however, generally produce IgE in larger quantities. Historically, this antibody was important in protecting us from parasites. In the example above, during a sensitization period, cat dander IgE is overproduced and coats other cells involved in the allergic response, such as mast cells and basophils, which contain various chemical messengers, such as histamine. These cells produce chemical messengers that cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction on subsequent exposures to the cat allergen. The cat protein is recognized by the IgE, leading to activation of the cells, which leads to the release of the allergic mediators mentioned above. These chemicals cause typical allergic symptoms, such as localized swelling, inflammation, itching, and mucus production. Once primed, or sensitized, the immune system is capable of mounting this exaggerated response with subsequent exposures to the allergen.

On exposure to cat dander, whereas the dad and daughter produce IgE, the mom and the other two children produce other classes of antibodies, which do not cause allergic reactions. In these nonallergic members of the family, the cat protein is eliminated uneventfully by the immune system and the cat has no effect on them.

Another part of the immune system, the T-cell, may be involved in allergic responses in the skin, as occurs from the oils of plants, such as poison ivypoison oakpoison sumac, reactions to metal, such as nickel, or certain chemicals. The T-cell may recognize a certain allergen in a substance contacting the skin and cause an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can cause an itchy rash.

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